APT Scenarios:

In this hands-on exercise, you assume the persona of Alice Bluebird, the analyst who successfully assisted Wayne Enterprises and was recommended to Grace Hoppy at Frothly to assist them with their recent issues.

 

Hunting Scenarios:

  • PowerShell: Adversaries will use PowerShell Empire to establish a foothold and carry out attacks.
  • Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol - FTP: Data Exfiltration may occur using common network protocols, principally FTP
  • Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol - DNS: Data Exfiltration may occur using common network protocols, specifically DNS
  • Adversary Infrastructure: The adversary has established multiple components of infrastructure beyond what we have already uncovered.
  • Spearphishing Attachment: Adversaries will attempt to establish a foothold within Froth.ly using Phishing.
  • User Execution: Adversaries will attempt to establish a foothold within Froth.ly by enticing a user to execute an action on a file.
  • Persistence - Create Account: An adversary will look to maintain persistence across an enterprise by creating user accounts.
  • Persistence - Scheduled Task: An adversary will look to maintain persistence across reboots by using a task scheduler.
  • Indicator Removal On Host: Clearing of audit / event logs could indicate an adversary attempting to cover their tracks.
  • Reconaissance: User Agent Strings may provide insight into an adversary that they may not have intended to show.
  • OSINT: Identifying publicly available company information and who is accessing it may provide insight into the adversary.
  • Lateral Movement: Adversaries will look to move laterally to other systems using Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).
  • Data Staging: Adversaries will stage data prior to exfiltration to make it easier to extract data at a time of their choosing as well as have a central place to place information as it is identified.

 

 

The data included in this app was generated in August of 2017 by members of Splunk's Security Specialist team - Dave Herrald, Ryan Kovar, Steve Brant, Jim Apger, John Stoner, Ken Westin, David Veuve and James Brodsky. They stood up a few lab environments connected to the Internet. Within the environment they had a few Windows endpoints instrumented with the Splunk Universal Forwarder and Splunk Stream. The forwarders were configured with best practices for Windows endpoint monitoring, including a full Microsoft Sysmon deployment and best practices for Windows Event logging. The environment included a Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall to capture traffic and provide web proxy services, and Suricata to provide network-based IDS. This resulted in the dataset below.

 

 

 


 

If you would like to learn more about Hunting with Splunk, here are some handy resources that you can check out:

# Question Weight Solved
1 This is a simple question to get you familiar with submitting answers. What is the name of the company that makes the software that you are using for this competition? Answer guidance: A six-letter word with no punctuation. 50 277

2 Amber Turing was hoping for Frothly to be acquired by a potential competitor which fell through, but visited their website to find contact information for their executive team. What is the website domain that she visited? Answer guidance: Do not provide the FQDN. Answer example: google.com 100 178

3 Amber found the executive contact information and sent him an email. What is the CEO's name? Provide the first and last name. 100 167

4 After the initial contact with the CEO, Amber contacted another employee at this competitor. What is that employee's email address? 100 172

5 What is the name of the file attachment that Amber sent to a contact at the competitor? 100 170

6 What is Amber's personal email address? 500 154

7 What version of TOR did Amber install to obfuscate her web browsing? Answer guidance: Numeric with one or more delimiter. 500 162

8 What is the public IPv4 address of the server running www.brewertalk.com? 100 172

9 Provide the IP address of the system used to run a web vulnerability scan against www.brewertalk.com. 500 166

10 The IP address from question 9 is also being used by a likely different piece of software to attack a URI path. What is the URI path? Answer guidance: Include the leading forward slash in your answer. Do not include the query string or other parts of the URI. Answer example: /phpinfo.php 100 163

11 What SQL function is being abused on the uri path from question 10? 100 148

12 What is Frank Ester's password salt value on www.brewertalk.com? 1000 116

13 What is user btun's password on brewertalk.com? 1500 63

14 What are the characters displayed by the XSS probe? Answer guidance: Submit answer in native language or character set. 500 95

15 What was the value of the cookie that Kevin's browser transmitted to the malicious URL as part of a XSS attack? Answer guidance: All digits. Not the cookie name or symbols like an equal sign. 100 94

16 The brewertalk.com web site employed Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) techniques. What was the value of the anti-CSRF token that was stolen from Kevin Lagerfield's computer and used to help create an unauthorized admin user on brewertalk.com? 1000 92

17 What brewertalk.com username was maliciously created by a spearphishing attack? 500 92

18 According to Frothly's records, what is the likely MAC address of Mallory's corporate MacBook? Answer guidance: Her corporate MacBook has the hostname MACLORY-AIR13. 100 16

19 What episode of Game of Thrones is Mallory excited to watch? Answer guidance: Submit the HBO title of the episode. 100 89

20 What is Mallory Krauesen's phone number? Answer guidance: ddd-ddd-dddd where d=[0-9]. No country code. 100 9

21 Enterprise Security contains a threat list notable event for MACLORY-AIR13 and suspect IP address 5.39.93.112. What is the name of the threatlist (i.e. Threat Group) that is triggering the notable? 250 11

22 Considering the threatlist you found in the question above, and related data, what protocol often used for file transfer is actually responsible for the generated traffic? 250 74

23 Mallory's critical PowerPoint presentation on her MacBook gets encrypted by ransomware on August 18. At what hour, minute, and second does this actually happen? Answer guidance: Provide the time in PDT. Use the 24h format HH:MM:SS, using leading zeroes if needed. Do not use Splunk's _time (index time). 500 34

24 How many seconds elapsed between the time the ransomware executable was written to disk on MACLORY-AIR13 and the first local file encryption? Answer guidance: Use the index times (_time) instead of other timestamps in the events. 500 60

25 Kevin Lagerfield used a USB drive to move malware onto kutekitten, Mallory's personal MacBook. She ran the malware, which obfuscates itself during execution. Provide the vendor name of the USB drive Kevin likely used. Answer Guidance: Use time correlation to identify the USB drive. 500 59

26 What programming language is at least part of the malware from the question above written in? 500 61

27 The malware from the two questions above appears as a specific process name in the process table when it is running. What is it? 250 22

28 The malware infecting kutekitten uses dynamic DNS destinations to communicate with two C&C servers shortly after installation. What is the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the first (alphabetically) of these destinations? 250 54

29 From the question above, what is the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the second (alphabetically) contacted C&C server? 250 52

30 What is the average Alexa 1M rank of the domains between August 18 and August 19 that MACLORY-AIR13 tries to resolve while connected via VPN to the corporate network? Answer guidance: Round to two decimal places. Remember to include domains with no rank in your average! Answer example: 3.23 or 223234.91 500 6

31 Two .jpg-formatted photos of Mallory exist in Kevin Lagerfield's server home directory that have eight-character file names, not counting the .jpg extension. Both photos were encrypted by the ransomware. One of the photos can be downloaded at the following link, replacing 8CHARACTERS with the eight characters from the file name. https://splunk.box.com/v/8CHARACTERS After you download the file to your computer, decrypt the file using the encryption key used by the ransomware. What is the complete line of text in the photo, including any punctuation? Answer guidance: The encryption key can be found in Splunk. 1500 5

32 A Federal law enforcement agency reports that Taedonggang often spearphishes its victims with zip files that have to be opened with a password. What is the name of the attachment sent to Frothly by a malicious Taedonggang actor? 100 65

33 The Taedonggang APT group encrypts most of their traffic with SSL. What is the "SSL Issuer" that they use for the majority of their traffic? Answer guidance: Copy the field exactly, including spaces. 100 60

34 Threat indicators for a specific file triggered notable events on two distinct workstations. What IP address did both workstations have a connection with? 100 30

35 Based on the IP address found in question 34, what domain of interest is associated with that IP address? 100 44

36 What unusual file (for an American company) does winsys32.dll cause to be downloaded into the Frothly environment? 500 43

37 What is the first and last name of the poor innocent sap who was implicated in the metadata of the file that executed PowerShell Empire on the first victim's workstation? Answer example: John Smith 500 44

38 What is the average Shannon entropy score of the subdomain containing UDP-exfiltrated data? Answer guidance: Cut off, not rounded, to the first decimal place. Answer examples: 3.2 or 223234.9 500 42

39 To maintain persistence in the Frothly network, Taedonggang APT configured several Scheduled Tasks to beacon back to their C2 server. What single webpage is most contacted by these Scheduled Tasks? Answer guidance: Remove the path and type a single value with an extension. Answer example: index.php or images.html 1000 45

40 The APT group Taedonggang is always building more infrastructure to attack future victims. Provide the IPV4 IP address of a Taedonggang controlled server that has a completely different first octet to other Taedonggang controlled infrastructure. Answer guidance: 4.4.4.4 has a different first octet than 8.4.4.4 1000 42

41 The Taedonggang group had several issues exfiltrating data. Determine how many bytes were successfully transferred in their final, mostly successful attempt to exfiltrate files via a method using TCP, using only the data available in Splunk logs. Use 1024 for byte conversion. 1500 27

42 Individual clicks made by a user when interacting with a website are associated with each other using session identifiers. You can find session identifiers in the stream:http sourcetype. The Frothly store website session identifier is found in one of the stream:http fields and does not change throughout the user session. What session identifier is assigned to [email protected] when visiting the Frothly store for the very first time? Answer guidance: Provide the value of the field, not the field name. 100 47

43 How many unique user ids are associated with a grand total order of $1000 or more? 500 42

44 Which user, identified by their email address, edited their profile before placing an order over $1000 in the same clickstream? Answer guidance: Provide the user ID, not other values found from the profile edit, such as name. 500 39

45 What street address was used most often as the shipping address across multiple accounts, when the billing address does not match the shipping address? Answer example: 123 Sesame St 500 16

46 What is the domain name used in email addresses by someone creating multiple accounts on the Frothly store website (http://store.froth.ly) that appear to have machine-generated usernames? 500 34

47 Which user ID experienced the most logins to their account from different IP address and user agent combinations? Answer guidance: The user ID is an email address. 100 36

48 What is the most popular coupon code being used successfully on the site? 1000 41

49 Several user accounts sharing a common password is usually a precursor to undesirable scenario orchestrated by a fraudster. Which password is being seen most often across users logging into http://store.froth.ly. 100 36

50 Which HTML page was most clicked by users before landing on http://store.froth.ly/magento2/checkout/ on August 19th? Answer guidance: Use earliest=1503126000 and latest=1503212400 to identify August 19th. Answer example: http://store.froth.ly/magento2/bigbrew.html 500 42

51 Which HTTP user agent is associated with a fraudster who appears to be gaming the site by unsuccessfully testing multiple coupon codes? 1000 28